Development of PAM-4 signaling for high performance computing, supercomputers and data center systems

  • Tien Duy Le International School, Vietnam National University (VNU-IS), Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Ngoc Minh
  • Le Trung Thanh
Keywords: data center, high performance computing, optical interconnect, super computer


We propose a new scheme for multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signaling for optical interconnects and data center networks. Our approach is to use only one 4x4 multimode interference (MMI) structure with two phase shifters in push-pull configuration. An extreme high bandwidth and compact footprint can be achieved. The whole device is designed using the existing VLSI technology.